What are the ophthalmologic findings suggestive of Graves disease?

Updated: Apr 17, 2020
  • Author: Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Ophthalmopathy is a hallmark of Graves disease. Approximately 25-30% of patients with Graves disease have clinical evidence of Graves ophthalmopathy. Progression from mild to moderate/severe ophthalmopathy occurs in about 3% of cases. [29] Thyrotropin receptor is highly expressed in the fat and connective tissue of patients with Graves ophthalmopathy. Measuring diplopia fields, eyelid fissures, range of extraocular muscles, visual acuity, and proptosis provides quantitative assessment to follow the course of ophthalmopathy. Signs of corneal or conjunctival irritation include conjunctival injection and chemosis. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including retinal examination and slit-lamp examination by an ophthalmologist, is indicated if the patient is symptomatic.

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