Which medications in the drug class Hyperosmotic agents are used in the treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG)?

Updated: Mar 16, 2020
  • Author: Kristin Schmid Biggerstaff, MD; Chief Editor: Inci Irak Dersu, MD, MPH  more...
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Answer

Hyperosmotic agents

These agents are used infrequently, most commonly to reduce extremely elevated IOP in acute situations of angle-closure or certain secondary glaucomas, or selectively as a preoperative measure before intraocular surgery.

Osmotics lower IOP by increasing the osmotic gradient between the blood and ocular fluids, resulting in loss of water from the eye (especially the vitreous) into the hyperosmotic blood plasma, with concomitant lowering of IOP, but an increase in intravascular volume. Therefore, care should be used in any patient with cardiac, renal, or hepatic abnormalities.

Systemic adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, headache, increased thirst, chills, fever, confusion or disorientation, electrolyte imbalances, and urinary retention.

Isosorbide dinitrate (Dilatrate-SR, Isordil Titradose)

In the eyes, may create an osmotic gradient between plasma and ocular fluids and induce diuresis by elevating osmolarity of glomerular filtrate. Effects may, in turn, inhibit tubular reabsorption of water. Treatment is preferred when less risk of nausea and vomiting than that posed by other oral hyperosmotic agents desired. Palatability best if poured over ice before ingestion. May use in patients with diabetes.

Mannitol (Osmitrol, Resectisol)

Reduces elevated IOP when the pressure cannot be lowered by other means.

Initially assess for adequate renal function in adults by administering a test dose of 200 mg/kg, given IV over 3-5 min. Should produce a urine flow of at least 30-50 mL/h of urine over 2-3 h.

In children, assess for adequate renal function by administering a test dose of 200 mg/kg, given IV over 3-5 min. Should produce a urine flow of at least 1 mL/h over 1-3 h.

The 20% w/v solution most commonly is used IV. Alternatively, concentrations of 10%, 15%, or 25% may be used.


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