Which ocular disorders are associated with congenital nystagmus?

Updated: Oct 08, 2019
  • Author: Mark Ventocilla, OD, FAAO; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC  more...
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Answer

Many ocular disorders have been associated with sensory deficit nystagmus. This is not meant to be an exhaustive listing. The variety of sensory causes suggests that the underlying cause is a failure of sensorimotor integration due to reduced vision and/or contrast sensitivity. See the following:

  • Early (usually bilateral) visual deprivation (eg), congenital cataracts, severe glaucoma, Peters anomaly [6]

  • Foveal hypoplasia (eg, aniridia, albinism [nystagmus associated with albinism has characteristics similar to idiopathic infantile nystagmus])

  • Retinal disease (eg, Leber congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, macular toxoplasmosis [especially if bilateral])

  • Retinal detachment (eg, severe retinopathy of prematurity, posterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy)

  • Optic nerve abnormalities (eg, hypoplasia, coloboma, atrophy)

  • Cortical visual impairment from perinatal insult or structural CNS abnormality


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