Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of melanoma?

Updated: Feb 18, 2020
  • Author: Enrique Garcia-Valenzuela, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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The differential diagnosis includes the following:

  • Choroidal Detachment

  • Intraocular Foreign Body

  • Chronic Angle Closure Glaucoma

  • Glaucoma, Hyphema

  • Neovascular Glaucoma

  • Cavernous Hemangioma

  • Vitreous Hemorrhage

  • Hyphema

  • Ciliary Body Melanoma

  • Conjunctival Melanoma

  • Iris Melanoma

Benign and malignant tumors, cysts, and other abnormal masses in the choroid, retina, and pigment epithelium must be distinguished from choroidal melanomas. Other problems to be considered include the following:

  • Melanocytic nevus

  • Melanocytoma

  • Metastatic tumors

  • Medulloepithelioma (diktyoma)

  • Choroidal osteoma

  • Adenoma

  • Adenocarcinoma

  • Combined hamartoma of the retina and pigment epithelium

  • Congenital hypertrophy and reactive hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

  • Retinal cavernous hemangioma

  • Presumed acquired retinal hemangioma

  • Lymphoid tumor

  • Hemangiopericytoma

  • Leiomyoma

  • Neurofibroma

  • Glioneuroma

  • Astrocytoma

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma

  • Posterior uveitis

  • Sarcoid nodules

  • Tubercular granuloma

Other choroidal masses can present with characteristics very similar to those of choroidal melanoma, making it a challenging diagnosis.

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