Which medications are used in the treatment of glucose intolerance disorders?

Updated: Jun 28, 2019
  • Author: Samuel T Olatunbosun, MD, FACP, FACE; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Oral antidiabetic agents can be classified into functional categories, as follows [47, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79] :

  • Secretagogues (eg, sulfonylureas, meglitinides), which stimulate insulin release

  • Insulin sensitizers (eg, biguanides, thiazolidinediones), which reduce insulin resistance

  • Medications that slow the digestive/absorptive process (eg, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors)

  • DPP-4 inhibitors (eg, sitagliptin), which inhibit DPP-4, the enzyme that inactivates incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP [45, 46]

  • Selective sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (eg, canagliflozin) block reabsorption of glucose in the kidney

  • Centrally acting dopamine agonist (bromocriptine), presumably via increase in central (hypothalamic) dopaminergic tone


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