What are the USDHHS guidelines on physical activity for the prevention of glucose intolerance disorders?

Updated: Jun 28, 2019
  • Author: Samuel T Olatunbosun, MD, FACP, FACE; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

The guidelines on physical activity were released in November 2018 by the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee of the US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). [61, 62]

Age- and condition-related recommendations

Children aged 3-5 years: Should be physically active throughout the day to enhance growth and development.

Children aged 6-17 years: Sixty minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day.

Adults: At least 150-300 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, OR  75-150 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, OR an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity; muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on two or more days per week.

Older adults: Multicomponent physical activity to include balance training, aerobic activity, and muscle-strengthening activity.

Pregnant and postpartum women: At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity weekly.

Adults with chronic conditions or disabilities who are able: Follow key guidelines and perform both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities.

Sleep, daily functioning, and mental health

Strong evidence demonstrates that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity improves sleep quality by decreasing the time it takes to fall asleep; it can also increase deep-sleep time and decrease daytime sleepiness.

Single episodes of physical activity promote improvements in executive function, to include organization of daily activities and future planning. Cognition (ie, memory, processing speed, attention, academic performance) also can be improved with physical exercise.

Regular physical activity reduces the risk of clinical depression, as well as reducing depressive symptoms and symptoms of anxiety.

Strong evidence demonstrates regular physical activity improves perceived quality of life.

Risk of diseases and conditions

Regular physical activity minimizes excessive weight gain, helps maintain weight within a healthy range, improves bone health, and prevents obesity, even in children as young as 3-5 years.

In pregnant women, physical activity helps reduce excessive weight gain in pregnancy and helps reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes and postpartum depression.

Regular physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive function and to reduce the risk of dementia; falls and fall-related injuries; and cancers of the breast, esophagus, colon, bladder, lung, endometrium, kidney, and stomach. It also helps retard the progression of osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension.

Promotion of physical activity

School- and community-based programs can be effective.

Environmental and policy changes should improve access to physical activity and support of physical activity behavior.

Information and technology should be used to promote physical activity, to include activity monitors (eg, wearable devices), smartphone apps, computer-tailored printed material, and Internet-based programs for self-monitoring, message delivery, and support.


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