What are the nongenetic causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders?

Updated: May 30, 2019
  • Author: William C Robertson, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, FAAN, FAAP  more...
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Nongenetic causes also must exist, because discordant monozygotic twin pairs are known. Additional evidence for environmental or epigenetic causes includes differences in severity between affected monozygotic twins, with greater severity in the twin with perinatal complications than in the co-twin and cases of secondary (symptomatic) tics with vascular, degenerative, toxic, or autoimmune causes. [112]

The possibility that some, or perhaps many, cases of TS may be caused by an abnormal immune response to streptococcal infection has generated substantial interest.

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