Which neuroanatomic studies support the theory of basal ganglia and frontal cortex involvement in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders?

Updated: May 30, 2019
  • Author: William C Robertson, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, FAAN, FAAP  more...
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Motor and vocal tics and compulsions frequently were reported in patients who survived the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the 1910s and 1920s. Similar symptoms also occur in some patients with Huntington disease, Wilson disease, neuroacanthocytosis, or frontal lobe degeneration. Although none of these illnesses cause discrete, circumscribed lesions, these observations support the impression that the basal ganglia and frontal cortex are involved in tic production.

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