Which medications in the drug class Selective Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Updated: Oct 23, 2019
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Selective Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 Inhibitors

These agents lower the renal glucose threshold.

Canagliflozin (Invokana)

Canagliflozin is an SGLT-2 inhibitor and lowers the renal glucose threshold (ie, the plasma glucose concentration that exceeds the maximum glucose reabsorption capacity of the kidney). Lowering the renal glucose threshold results in increased urinary glucose excretion. Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise, canagliflozin therapy is aimed at improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. In addition, in adults with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria of more than 300 mg/day, canagliflozin is indicated to lower the chances of end-stage renal disease, doubling of serum creatinine, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for heart failure.

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga)

Dapagliflozin reduces glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules and lowers the renal threshold for glucose, thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is indicated as monotherapy, as initial therapy with metformin, or as an add-on to other oral glucose-lowering agents, including metformin, pioglitazone, glimepiride, sitagliptin, and insulin. It is also indicated to lower the risk of adults with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors being hospitalized for heart failure.

Empagliflozin (Jardiance)

Empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, decreases blood glucose by increasing urinary glucose excretion. SGLT-2 is expressed in the proximal renal tubules and is responsible for the majority of the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the tubular lumen. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption and lower the renal threshold for glucose.

It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise, empagliflozin therapy is aimed at improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. It is also indicated for lowering the cardiovascular death risk in adults with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Ertugliflozin (Steglatro)

An SGLT2 inhibitor, ertugliflozin is indicated for improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes, serving as an adjunct to diet and exercise. It can also be found in the combination products ertugliflozin plus metformin and ertugliflozin plus sitagliptin.


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