Which medications in the drug class Antidiabetics, Sulfonylureas are used in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Updated: Oct 23, 2019
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Antidiabetics, Sulfonylureas

Sulfonylureas are time-honored insulin secretagogues (ie, oral hypoglycemic agents). They have been used as monotherapy and in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents or with insulin, although glimepiride is the only sulfonylurea approved by the FDA for combination therapy. Sulfonylureas function by stimulating the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells and can usually reduce HbA1c by 1-2% and blood glucose concentrations by about 20%.

Glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase)

Glyburide is a second-generation sulfonylurea. It is more potent and exhibits fewer drug interactions than first-generation agents. It also has a longer half-life than most sulfonylureas., Glyburide has been used as an alternative to insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes, although it is not FDA approved for this indication. Glyburide (known as glibenclamide in the United Kingdom) was one of the sulfonylureas used in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). [63]

Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL)

Glipizide is also a second-generation sulfonylurea. It is more potent and exhibits fewer drug interactions than first-generation agents. It may cause more physiologic insulin release with less risk for hypoglycemia and weight gain than other sulfonylureas.

Glimepiride (Amaryl)

Stimulates insulin secretion from beta cells; may also decrease rate of hepatic glucose production and increase insulin receptor sensitivity.


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