What are the benefits of limiting carbohydrates or fats in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Sep 27, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Esposito et al reported greater benefit from a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean-style diet than from a low-fat diet in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. [308] In a single-center, randomized trial, 215 overweight patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus who had never been treated with antihyperglycemic drugs and whose HbA1c levels were less than 11% were assigned to either a Mediterranean-style diet (< 50% of daily calories from carbohydrates) or a low-fat diet (< 30% of daily calories from fat).

After 4 years, participants assigned to the Mediterranean-style diet had lost more weight and had demonstrated more improvement in some measures of glycemic control and coronary risk than had participants consuming the low-fat diet; 44% of patients in the Mediterranean-style diet group required antihyperglycemic drug therapy, compared with 70% of those in the low-fat diet group.

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