What should funduscopic exam for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) include?

Updated: Jul 13, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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The funduscopic examination should include a careful view of the retina. The optic disc and the macula should be visualized. If hemorrhages or exudates are seen, the patient should be referred to an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. Examiners who are not ophthalmologists tend to underestimate the severity of retinopathy, especially if the patients' pupils are not dilated.

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