How does diabetes mellitus (DM) affect pregnancy?

Updated: Jul 13, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Untreated gestational diabetes mellitus can lead to fetal macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. In addition, mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus have increased rates of cesarean delivery and chronic hypertension.

Despite advanced age, multiparity, obesity, and social disadvantage, patients with type 2 diabetes were found to have better glycemic control, fewer large-for-gestational-age infants, fewer preterm deliveries, and fewer neonatal care admissions compared with patients with type 1 diabetes. This suggests that better tools are needed to improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. [134] (For more information, see Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy.)

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