Which lipid abnormalities contribute to cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Sep 27, 2021
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes is related in part to insulin resistance, with the following concomitant lipid abnormalities:

  • Elevated levels of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles

  • Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol

  • Elevated levels of triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins

Thrombotic abnormalities (ie, elevated type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI-1], elevated fibrinogen) and hypertension are also involved. Other conventional atherosclerotic risk factors (eg, family history, smoking, elevated LDL cholesterol) also affect cardiovascular risk.

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