What are the initial steps in the diagnosis of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS)?

Updated: Dec 26, 2018
  • Author: Masanori Takeoka, MD; Chief Editor: George I Jallo, MD  more...
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As soon as Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is first suspected or documented, a complete ophthalmologic evaluation is essential to rule out glaucoma, since the infant's eye is damaged quickly by increased intraocular pressure (IOP).

In young patients, examination under anesthesia or deep sedation is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of glaucoma. Careful assessment in each eye of IOP, corneal diameter, cycloplegic refraction, axial length, and optic nerve cupping, as well as gonioscopic examination, is mandatory.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein may be elevated, presumably secondary to microhemorrhage. Note that a major intracranial hemorrhage itself is rare in SWS, although microhemorrhage may be common.

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