What is the efficacy of rapid-acting inhaled insulin powder (Afrezza) in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Oct 13, 2020
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

A rapid-acting inhaled insulin powder (Afrezza) for types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus was approved by the FDA in June 2014. It is regular insulin but is considered rapid-acting because it peaks at 12-15 minutes and returns to baseline levels at about 160 minutes. Approval was based on a study involving over 3,000 patients over a 24-week period. In persons with type 1 diabetes, the inhaled insulin was found to be noninferior to standard injectable insulin when used in conjunction with basal insulin at reducing hemoglobin A1c. In persons with type 2 diabetes, the inhaled insulin was compared to placebo inhalation in combination with oral diabetic agents and showed a statistically significant lower hemoglobin A1c. [119, 120]


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