What are the AACE recommendations for distinguishing between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Nov 30, 2020
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Although the oral glucose tolerance test with insulin levels is usually considered unnecessary for diagnosing type 1 DM, the dramatic increase of type 2 DM in the young suggests that assessment of insulin secretion may become more important. The 2011 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) guidelines note that to help distinguish between the 2 types in children, physicians should measure insulin and C-peptide levels and immune markers (eg, glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD] autoantibodies), as well as obtain a detailed family history. [84]

C-peptide is formed during conversion of proinsulin to insulin. An insulin or C-peptide level below 5 µU/mL (0.6 ng/mL) suggests type 1 DM; a fasting C-peptide level greater than 1 ng/dL in a patient who has had diabetes for more than 1-2 years is suggestive of type 2 (ie, residual beta-cell function). An exception is the individual with type 2 DM who presents with a very high glucose level (eg, >300 mg/dL) and a temporarily low insulin or C-peptide level but who will recover insulin production once normal glucose is restored.


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