How is monogenic diabetes differentiated from type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Sep 13, 2019
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
  • Print
Answer

Monogenic diabetes

Although monogenic diabetes syndromes are not very common, representing fewer than 5% of pediatric diabetes cases, it is important to avoid misdiagnosis of monogenic DM as type 1 or type 2 DM. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) advises considering a diagnosis of monogenic diabetes when the following criteria are present [5] :

  • Diabetes is diagnosed within 6 months of birth

  • A strong family history of diabetes is present, without type 2 features (eg, obesity or higher-risk ethnicity)

  • Mild fasting hyperglycemia is observed, especially in young, nonobese children

  • Diabetes is present, but islet cell autoantibodies, obesity, and insulin resistance are absent

If a form of monogenic diabetes is suspected, it is increasingly feasible to obtain a true genetic diagnosis through commercially available genetic testing. For further information about the diagnosis and management of monogenic diabetes, the ADA suggests consulting the 2009 clinical practice consensus guidelines of the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) at the ISPAD website. [5, 67]


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!