What are cranial nerve complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Sep 13, 2019
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Patients can present with diplopia and eye pain. In diabetic third-nerve palsy, the pupil is usually spared, whereas in third-nerve palsy due to intracranial aneurysm or tumor, the pupil is affected in 80-90% of cases.

It is important to consider nondiabetic causes of cranial nerve palsies, including intracranial tumors, aneurysms, and brainstem stroke. [63] Therefore, evaluation should include nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced compute4d tomography (CT) or, preferably, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurologic consultation is recommended. Acute cranial-nerve mononeuropathies usually resolve in 2-9 months. Acute thrombosis or ischemia of the blood vessels supplying the structure involved is thought to cause these neuropathies.


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