How does coronary vasodilator dysfunction affect the prognosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), and how does diabetes affect mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Updated: Jul 28, 2020
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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In both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, coronary vasodilator dysfunction is a strong independent predictor of cardiac mortality. In diabetic patients without coronary artery disease, those with impaired coronary flow reserve have event rates similar to those with prior coronary artery disease, while patients with preserved coronary flow reserve have event rates similar to non-diabetic patients. [47]

A study by Bode et al indicated that among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the US in-hospital death rate for individuals living with diabetes, patients with an HbA1c of 6.5% or higher, and those with hyperglycemia throughout their stay is 29%, a figure over four times greater than that for patients without diabetes or hyperglycemia. Moreover, the in-hospital death rate for patients with no evidence of preadmission diabetes who develop hyperglycemia while admitted was found to be seven times higher (42%). [48, 49]

Another study, by Barrera et al, looking at 65 observational reports (15,794 participants), found that among COVID-19 patients with diabetes, the unadjusted relative risk for admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) was 1.96, and for mortality, 2.78. [50, 51]

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