What is the association between upper respiratory infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Sep 13, 2019
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

Early upper respiratory infection may also be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. In an analysis of data on 148 children considered genetically at risk for diabetes, upper respiratory infections in the first year of life were associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes . [38, 39] All children in the study who developed islet autoimmunity had at least 2 upper respiratory infections in the first year of life and at least 1 infection within 6 months before islet autoantibody seroconversion.

Children with respiratory infections in the first 6 months of life had the greatest increased hazard ratio (HR) for islet autoantibody seroconversion (HR = 2.27), and the risk was also increased in those with respiratory infections at ages 6 to almost 12 months (HR = 1.32). [38, 39] The rate of islet autoantibody seroconversion was highest among children with more than 5 respiratory infections in the first year of year of life. Respiratory infections in the second year of life were not related to increased risk. [38, 39]


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