How does the frequency of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) vary geographically?

Updated: Jun 27, 2020
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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The genetic contribution to type 1 DM is also reflected in the significant variance in the frequency of the disease among different ethnic populations. Type 1 DM is most prevalent in European populations, with people from northern Europe more often affected than those from Mediterranean regions. [21] The disease is least prevalent in East Asians. [22]

Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci that are associated with type 1 DM, but few causal relations have been established. The genomic region most strongly associated with other autoimmune diseases, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is the location of several susceptibility loci for type 1 DM—in particular, class II HLA DR and DQ haplotypes. [23, 24, 25]


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