What is the pathogenesis of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Updated: Nov 30, 2020
  • Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Answer

In the kidneys, the characteristic wall thickening of small arterioles and capillaries leads to diabetic nephropathy, which is characterized by proteinuria, glomerular hyalinization (Kimmelstiel-Wilson), and chronic renal failure. Exacerbated expression of cytokines such as tumor growth factor beta 1 is part of the pathophysiology of glomerulosclerosis, which begins early in the course of diabetic nephropathy.

Genetic factors influence the development of diabetic nephropathy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting the factors involved in its pathogenesis appear to influence the risk for diabetic nephropathy in different people with type 1 DM. [15]


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