What is the prognosis of lead toxicity?

Updated: Jan 16, 2020
  • Author: Pranay Kathuria, MD, FACP, FASN, FNKF; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
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Answer

Essentially, 2 syndromes of lead poisoning exist, depending on exposure: one syndrome is associated with acute or subacute high-level lead exposure, and the other is associated with chronic low-level lead exposure.

With exposure to high levels of lead, patients develop lethargy, progressing to coma and seizures. Death is uncommon with appropriate medical management. Long-term sequelae depend on the duration, as well as the amount, of exposure. Acute lead nephropathy is usually completely reversible with chelation therapy. Deaths may result from the elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) associated with lead encephalopathy.

With chronic exposure to low or moderate levels of lead, subacute symptoms develop. Patients with chronic lead nephropathy may have a progressive decline in kidney function and eventually require renal replacement therapy.

Mortality related to lead toxicity is rare today. However, morbidity remains common. Because lead is an enzymatic poison, it perturbs multiple essential bodily functions, producing a wide array of symptoms and signs.

Adults generally do not develop central effects but may develop distal motor neuropathies. Some reports document an increase in depressive disorders, aggressive behavior, and other maladaptive affective disorders in adult patients with lead poisoning. Men with lead poisoning tend to have lower sperm counts and may experience frank impotence; women have an increase in miscarriages and smaller babies.

In the pediatric population, fatalities associated with lead encephalopathy were reported in the 1960s. Today, with aggressive management of ICP, these deaths are preventable. Occasional cases of acute lead encephalopathy still occur, and these often result in severe neurologic damage. Mounting evidence suggests that lead poisoning in childhood produces a long-term problem with learning, intelligence, and earning power. Asymptomatic lead poisoning has a far better prognosis.


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