What are the racial predilections of lead toxicity?

Updated: Jan 16, 2020
  • Author: Pranay Kathuria, MD, FACP, FASN, FNKF; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
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Answer

Although no compelling evidence exists that any particular race is biologically predisposed to lead toxicity, covariant conditions such as poor nutrition and lower socioeconomic status clearly are associated with chronic lead poisoning.

Certain populations, such as African American children and new immigrants living in homes with decaying lead-based paint in low-income urban centers, are at increased risk of lead poisoning. The NHANES III data have shown higher lead levels among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans. Whether this translates into a higher incidence of lead nephropathy among these persons is not known.

Overall, black non-Hispanic children appear to have the greatest risk of developing lead poisoning. The NHANES figures for 1997 reveal a prevalence rate of 21.9% among black non-Hispanic children living in homes built before 1946, a rate of 13.7% in those living in homes built in 1946-1973, and a rate of 3.4% in those living in homes built subsequent to 1973.

This compares to a prevalence of 13%, 2.3%, and 1.6% among Mexican-American children and 5.6%, 1.4%, and 1.5% among white non-Hispanic children living in homes built before 1946, living in homes built in 1946-1973, and living in homes built subsequent to 1973, respectively.

An analysis of trends in blood lead levels over the past 20 years shows that, although the overall geometric mean blood lead level in children has dropped dramatically, disparities still exist, causing increased risk to certain populations. The factors of living in older housing, poverty, age, and being non-Hispanic black places a child at risk for elevated blood lead levels. [19]


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