What causes focal muscular atrophy (FMA) confined to bulbar muscles?

Updated: Feb 20, 2018
  • Author: Sridharan Ramaratnam, MD, MBBS; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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FMA confined to bulbar muscles

  • Bulbar palsy due to ALS: Limb involvement eventually occurs in most cases.

  • Hereditary autosomal-dominant bulbar palsy: The bulbar weakness is progressive, but limb involvement is rare.

  • Postpolio syndrome occurring in patients with a history of bulbar involvement during acute polio

  • Diseases involving the hypoglossal nerve and motor component of the trigeminal nerve

  • Structural brainstem lesions such as tumor, stroke, or syringobulbia

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