What mnemonic is used to characterize the late stages of general paresis (of the insane)?

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Richard P Knudsen, MD, FAAN, FAAP; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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In the late stages of the disease, occurring generally within 5 years of the onset of symptoms, almost all patients with general paresis are demented, often with periodic convulsions and progressive vegetative degeneration until they die. The mnemonic PARESIS captures these signs, as follows:

  • Personality

  • A ffect

  • R eflexes (hyperactive)

  • E ye (eg, Argyll Robertson pupils)

  • S ensorium (eg, illusions, delusions, hallucinations)

  • I ntellect (eg, decreased recent memory, orientation, calculations, judgment, insight)

  • S peech

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