What is the role of enteroviruses in the etiology of viral meningitis?

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Cordia Wan, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Answer

Enteroviruses account for more than 85% of all cases of viral meningitis. They are part of the viral family Picornaviridae ("pico" for small, "rna" for ribonucleic acid) and include echoviruses, coxsackieviruses A and B, polioviruses, and the numbered enteroviruses. Nonpolio enteroviruses are common viruses; they are nearly as prevalent as rhinoviruses (which cause the common cold). [1]

The overwhelming majority of meningitis cases are caused by serotypes of coxsackievirus and echovirus. Coxsackievirus B subgroups alone account for more than 60% of meningitis cases in children younger than age 3 months.

Enteroviruses enter the human host usually via the oral-fecal route, but can also spread through the respiratory route.

Enteroviruses are ubiquitous in the summer and early fall; their propensity to cause infection during the warmer months is the major factor in the higher incidence of aseptic meningitis during that time.

The associated clinical findings in enteroviral infections may include pharyngitis, pleurodynia, rash, and pericarditis.

Expectant mothers infected with coxsackievirus B may remain minimally symptomatic, but their infants can acquire the infection perinatally and develop a potential fatal illness, with the infection targeted mainly toward the heart.

Enteroviruses 70 and 71, which exhibit strong neurotropism, are associated with meningoencephalitis, poliolike paralytic syndromes, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, as well as aseptic meningitis.


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