What are the physical findings in alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA)?

Updated: Aug 27, 2020
  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Answer

Generally, the physical findings relate to volume depletion and chronic alcohol abuse. Typical characteristics of the latter may include rhinophyma, tremulousness, hepatosplenomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and palmar erythema. The patient might be tachycardic, tachypneic, profoundly orthostatic, or frankly hypotensive as a result of dehydration from decreased oral intake, diaphoresis, and vomiting.

The patient's breath may carry the fruity odor of ketosis. Tachypnea in the form of the Kussmaul respiration varieties is usually present when the pH is less than 7.2. [9]

Hypothermia is common in AKA. A fever can be a sign of an underlying infectious process.

Abdominal tenderness consistent with a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease, pancreatitis, gastritis, or peptic ulcer disease may be found on abdominal examination and may mimic an abdominal emergency. Hemoccult-positive stools may be present.

Mental status may be normal or slightly impaired as a result of derangements in electrolytes or vital signs. Severe obtundation; fixed, dilated pupils; and finally, death may occur.


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