Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM)?

Updated: May 07, 2018
  • Author: Krupa Pandey, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Other problems to be considered in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related VM include the following:

  • HIV-associated transverse myelitis during seroconversion [4]

  • Herpes simplex (HSV) or zoster (VZV) virus infection

  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

  • Neurosyphilis

  • Cervical disk syndromes

  • Other HIV-associated conditions (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma, toxoplasmosis) in the spinal canal

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  • Compressive myelopathy (eg, tumor, abscess, herniated disc, arteriovenous malformation)

  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1/2)–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (can co-exist with HIV infection)

  • Spinal epidural abscess in HIV-infected parenteral drug users

  • Multiple sclerosis

  • Vitamin B-12 deficiency

  • Copper deficiency

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