What are possible complications of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE)?

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Wayne E Anderson, DO, FAHS, FAAN; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Anterograde memory often is impaired even with successful treatment of HSE. Retrograde memory, executive function, and language ability also may be impaired. A study by Utley et al showed that patients who had a shorter delay (< 5 d) between presentation and treatment had better cognitive outcomes. [25]

Elbers and colleagues followed properly treated children for 12 years after the HSE. They found seizures in 44% of the children and developmental delay in 25% of the children. They concluded that HSE continues to be associated with poor long-term neurologic outcomes despite appropriate therapy. [26]

Shelley and colleagues reported a case of intracerebral hematoma occurring in a patient successfully treated with a full course of acyclovir after apparent eradication of the virus. The hematoma occurred in the region of the encephalitis. [27]

Marschitz and colleagues reported a case of chorea after HSE. [28]

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