What causes spinal cord infarction?

Updated: Jul 26, 2018
  • Author: Thomas F Scott, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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Answer

Identifying the cause of spinal cord infarction according to clues related to the location of the vascular pathology is generally attempted. The pathology may involve the aorta or an intervening arterial feeder (eg, thoracic, intercostal, or cervical branch from subclavian or vertebral artery), or the radicular artery may affect the anterior spinal artery and intrinsic arterial vessels within the spinal cord. Spinal venous pathology may produce spinal infarction, although this is clinically rare.

  • Involvement of intrinsic cord vessels has been reported as a manifestation of degenerative arteriosclerosis (with typical risk factors, most notably age related), but infarction of the spinal cord remains rare in this high risk group relative to infarction of other organs, due to the rich anastamotic network of the spinal cord.  Equally rare, but with demographics tilted towards a younger group on average, is infarction with arteritis, both in systemic lupus erythematosus and granulomatous arteritis.   Varicella zoster virus is known to induce arteritis and can rrsult in the same acute process.

  • Emboli consisting of intervertebral disk fragments have been reported to enter and occlude arteries supplying the spinal cord, not only in humans, but in other large vertabrate animals..

  • Anterior spinal artery occlusion has been reported with arteritis, including that associated with syphilis and diabetes mellitus; after trauma; spontaneously or without recognized cause; and as a complication of spinal angiography, cervical spondylosis, spinal adhesive arachnoiditis, administration of intrathecal phenol, and spinal anesthesia.

  • Aortic disease has produced spinal infarction in a variety of situations including dissecting aneurysm; aortic surgery, especially with aortic cross-clamping above the renal artery (below that level anastomotic flow via the artery of Adamkiewicz usually provides protective circulation); aortography; atherosclerotic embolization; and aortic thrombosis.

  • Uncommon causes include decompression sickness, which has a predilection for spinal ischemic damage; complications of abdominal surgery, particularly sympathectomy; circulatory failure as a result of cardiac arrest or prolonged hypotension; and vascular steal in the presence of an arteriovenous malformation, or vascular compression by tumors in the spinal canal, vertebral fracture, and treatment of migraine headache with zolmitriptan. [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15]


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