How is fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) staged?

Updated: Jul 27, 2018
  • Author: James A Wilson, MD, MSc, FRCPC; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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No formal staging system exists for FMD, although 4-vessel angiography of the cerebrovasculature is used to identify the extent of the craniocervical disease and the presence of comorbid dissections and aneurysms.

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