What are the signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: André Diedrich, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Answer

Red flags supporting the diagnosis of MSA include the following:

  • Orofacial dystonia

  • Disproportionate antecollis

  • Severe anterior flexion of the spine (camptocormia)

  • Severe lateral flexion of the spine (Pisa syndrome)

  • Contractures of hands and feet

  • Inspiratory sighs

  • Severe dysphonia

  • Severe dysarthria

  • New or increased snoring

  • Cold hands and feet

  • Pathologic laughter or crying

  • Jerky myoclonic postural/action tremor


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