What are the signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Updated: Oct 21, 2018
  • Author: Mohini Gurme, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Multiple system atrophy

  • MSA is a chronic, progressive disorder with mixed features of chronic autonomic dysfunction, parkinsonism, and ataxia. [9]

  • Autonomic dysfunction is a common finding in MSA and in the absence of pathological findings essential to the diagnosis.

  • A subset of patients with PAF may eventually develop MSA, but no clinical or diagnostic markers identify this group at the outset.

  • Depending on their clinical features, patients with MSA may be categorized as parkinsonian (MSAp) or cerebellar (MSAc) variants, depending on the most prominent symptoms and findings on physical examination.

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