What causes multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Updated: Oct 21, 2018
  • Author: Mohini Gurme, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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In MSA with autonomic involvement, changes in the intermediolateral cell column also may be seen; in addition, widespread abnormalities are apparent in the brain. Histopathologically, alpha-synuclein immunostaining demonstrates glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Associated clinical findings are related to the constellation of affected areas. Neuronal loss may be noted in the basal ganglia, pons, cerebellum, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, nucleus of Edinger-Westphal, hypothalamus, thalamus, and vestibular complex.

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