How are video recordings used in the administration of the Timed Stereotypies Rating Scale for the assessment of tardive dyskinesia (TD)?

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Another option is to record the patient on video for at least 10 minutes and then to rate the video later, using an audio recording of 30-second segments adding up to 10 minutes. Optimally, the patient is rated both live and on video. The live rater notes the seconds on the image of the video screen of the videocamera to determine each 30-second segment of the 10-minute observation period. The video recording is rated by examiners who are blind to the status of the patient. Test-retest reliability can thus be determined by assessing the ratings of the live and video sessions.

Video recordings often miss crucial events, such as a tear or a jerk. The score sheet contains blank spaces for other head/neck stereotypies in items 21 and 22 and for other stereotypies in items 49-60 at the end of the form, where additional patient movements (eg, extending arms at the elbow or extending legs at the knee) can be added. Additional patient utterances (eg, grunts, snorts, throat clearing, vowels, syllables, words, sentences) can also be added in the blank spaces for other stereotypies in items 49-60.

If the sessions are recorded on video, the recordings may be played back frame by frame to facilitate the observation of each occurrence of every stereotypy.

Because some of the terms of the Timed Stereotypies Rating Scale may not be well known, some further definitions are provided. Item 9, the bonbon sign, is present when the patient presses the tip of the tongue against the cheek as if tasting a piece of candy in the mouth. Item 48, the Bronx cheer, is a colloquial euphemism for a sound occurring when air is forcefully expressed through tightly closed lips resembling the noise of a flatulent retort.

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