Which assessment tools are used for the classification of tardive dyskinesia (TD)?

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Characterization and classification of TDs and other movement disorders are facilitated by the administration of the Movement Disorders Checklist by trained raters to score the presence or absence of traits of movements (see the images below). Each discrete movement is rated separately on its own page. This checklist can be readily used by practitioners in clinical settings.

With dichotomous random variables (ie, indicator functions), algorithms in the form of linear regression equations express the relationships among dyskinesias and other movement disorders. The formulation can be expressed as a Venn diagram (see the image below).

Tardive dyskinesia. Venn diagram of the classifica Tardive dyskinesia. Venn diagram of the classification of movement disorders.

As the diagram indicates, every case of akathisia is also a case of stereotypy, and therefore, the presence of akathisia implies the presence of stereotypy. Some cases of chorea can be classified as akathisia and stereotypy, whereas other cases of chorea can be classified as myoclonus. In addition, some cases of tics can also be classified as myoclonus. Some cases of dystonia can be classified as akathisia.

The Venn diagram also indicates that tic is entirely separate and distinct from akathisia, chorea, dystonia, stereotypy, and tremor. Furthermore, the diagram demonstrates that tremor is distinct from the other movement disorders.

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