Which physical findings help differentiate torsion dystonia from tardive dystonia?

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Unlike tardive dystonia, torsion dystonia is characterized by twisting and sustained contractions of muscles resulting in rapid, repetitive, distressing movements. Torsion dystonia usually begins with inversion of the foot and spasm of the proximal limb muscles, resulting in gait abnormalities. Scoliosis, torticollis, and tortipelvis may occur in torsion dystonia. Patients may experience considerable impairment in performing activities of daily living. Spasmodic torticollis presents in adults and is characterized by torticollis, anterocollis, or retrocollis.

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