What is the prevalence of different forms of tardive dyskinesia (TD)?

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Answer

In 1997, Goetz estimated that tardive dyskinesia (TD) occurs in approximately 15-30% of persons who receive long-term treatment with neuroleptics. [27] TD is more likely to occur in individuals who have manifested acute adverse effects of exposure to dopamine antagonists. The prevalence of TD is higher in cigarette smokers. [28]

The various subtypes of TD vary markedly in frequency. For example, orofacial, buccolingual, and masticatory dyskinesias are common, but only 1-2% of people treated with dopamine antagonists develop tardive dystonia.

Orofacial TDs differ from peripheral TDs with regard to the occurrence of comorbid acute movement disorders. Acute tremor, acute akathisia, and acute Parkinsonism are more common in people with peripheral TD. Distinguishing acute and TDs in an individual patient can represent a serious diagnostic challenge.


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