Which procedures are performed in the workup of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH)?

Updated: Oct 19, 2018
  • Author: Michael J Schneck, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Answer

All patients with suspected NPH should undergo diagnostic CSF removal (either large volume lumbar puncture and/or external lumbar drainage [ELD]), which has both diagnostic and prognostic value (see Surgical Care). When the CSF opening pressure is greatly elevated, other causes of hydrocephalus should be considered, although CSF pressures may be transiently elevated in NPH. Improvement in symptoms with large volume drainage is supportive of the diagnosis of NPH.

ELD has a greater impact on brain volume expansion compared with lumbar puncture. In one study 20 patients with NPH based on clinical and radiological criteria were divided into 2 equal groups of 10 that underwent lumbar puncture or ELD. The median volume of CSF removed was 35 mL in patients who underwent lumbar puncture and 406 mL in patients who underwent ELD. Brain volume change was significantly larger in patients who underwent ELD than in patients who underwent lumbar puncture (p = 0.022) and correlated with the volume of CSF removal (r = 0.628, p = 0.004). Brain volume expansion was most pronounced adjacent to the lateral ventricles but was also detectable in the temporal and frontal regions. The median ventricular volume decreased after CSF removal. Ventricular volume reduction was more pronounced in patients who underwent ELD than in patients who underwent LP. [13]


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