What are the treatment options for heterotopic ossification (HO) in cauda equina and conus medullaris syndrome?

Updated: Jun 14, 2018
  • Author: Segun Toyin Dawodu, JD, MD, MS, MBA, LLM, FAAPMR, FAANEM; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, CPE, MHCM, FAAPL  more...
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Heterotopic ossification (HO) can be confirmed by a triple-phase bone scan with associated elevation in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and phosphate, especially in the early stage. Treatment includes stretching exercises, disodium etidronate (20 mg/kg qd x 2 wk, then 10 mg/kg for as long as 12 wk), radiation, and surgical excision. Surgery is done only when the HO has matured or stabilized, which is evident by stable plain x-ray, normal alkaline phosphatase level, and decline in triple-phase bone scan activity.

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