Which muscles should be assessed during a physical exam of suspected cauda equina and conus medullaris syndrome?

Updated: Jun 14, 2018
  • Author: Segun Toyin Dawodu, JD, MD, MS, MBA, LLM, FAAPMR, FAANEM; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, CPE, MHCM, FAAPL  more...
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Muscle strength of the following muscles should be tested to determine the level of lesion:

  • L2 - Hip flexors (iliopsoas)

  • L3 - Knee extensors (quadriceps)

  • L4 - Ankle dorsiflexors (tibialis anterior)

  • L5 - Big toe extensors (extensor hallucis longus)

  • S1 - Ankle plantar flexors (gastrocnemius/soleus)

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