What is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Updated: Nov 08, 2018
  • Author: J Nicholas Brenton, MD; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
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Answer

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating condition that predominately affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The disorder manifests as an acute-onset encephalopathy associated with polyfocal neurologic deficits and is typically self-limiting. [37, 46, 48] ADEM bears a striking clinical and pathological resemblance to other acute demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of childhood, including multiple sclerosis (MS). ADEM in children is readily distinguishable from alternative diagnoses on the basis of clinical features and findings on neuroimaging and laboratory investigations. However, given that ADEM lacks a specific identified biological marker rendering a reliable laboratory diagnosis, long-term follow-up is important as there are instances where an illness initially diagnosed as ADEM is ultimately replaced with a diagnosis of MS. [1]


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