What is the pathophysiology of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS)?

Updated: Nov 05, 2018
  • Author: Danette C Taylor, DO, MS, FACN; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
  • Print
Answer

Nonspecific inflammation (noncaseating granulomatous or nongranulomatous) within the cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure is the cause of the constant pain, which characterizes the onset of this disorder. Ophthalmoparesis or disordered eye movements occur when cranial nerves III, IV, and VI are damaged by granulomatous inflammation. Pupillary dysfunction may be present and is related to injury to the sympathetic fibers in the cavernous portion of ICA or parasympathetic fibers that surround the oculomotor nerve. Trigeminal nerve involvement (primarily V1) may cause paresthesias of the forehead. Pathological involvement beyond the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or apex of the orbit occurs rarely, and the disorder is part of a continuum with idiopathic orbital pseudotumor, with which it shares histopathologic features. Spontaneous remissions can occur; relapses may occur in up to 40% of the patients.


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!