When is high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) indicated in the treatment of aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Updated: Oct 08, 2019
  • Author: Christopher Luzzio, MD; Chief Editor: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA  more...
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High-dose cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) has been used for induction therapy to stabilize aggressive MS. In a retrospective study of 32 patients, Harrison et al reported that induction with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg IV infusion over 4 days) followed by long-term maintenance therapy with glatiramer was well tolerated and appeared to be effective in reducing the risk of relapse, disability progression, and new MRI lesions. [109] Adverse effects of cyclophosphamide include leukemia, lymphoma, infection, and hemorrhagic cystitis.

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