What are the main differential diagnoses for multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Updated: Oct 08, 2019
  • Author: Christopher Luzzio, MD; Chief Editor: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA  more...
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The main differential diagnoses for MS include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Spinal cord neoplasms (eg, astrocytomas, ependymomas)

  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

  • Schilder disease

  • Baló concentric sclerosis

  • Sarcoidosis

  • Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

  • Transverse myelitis

  • Infarction of the spinal cord

  • Vasculitis

  • Radiation myelitis

  • Arteriovenous fistula

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis

  • Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (vitamin B12 deficiency)

  • Small-vessel ischemic disease (affecting the brain primarily, and caused by diseases with vascular risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, old age)

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