Which biomarkers are used in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Updated: Jun 20, 2018
  • Author: Gaurav Gupta, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
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In the fluid of artificially produced blisters, significantly higher levels of proinflammatory mediators and vasoactive substances, such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tryptase, and endothelin-1, were observed in the affected extremities of patients with CRPS type I compared to the uninvolved extremities. Also, nitrate/nitrite levels have been shown to be reduced. [69, 70, 71] Findings such as these may lead to diagnostic tools in the future. However, a direct relationship between the signs and symptoms of CRPS type I and these proinflammatory mediators cannot be assumed because these findings are still in evidence after the CRPS improves. [72]

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