How is the risk of complications from intraforaminal injections in pain management reduced?

Updated: Jun 19, 2018
  • Author: Anthony H Wheeler, MD; Chief Editor: Meda Raghavendra (Raghu), MD  more...
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Recently, blunt and flexible catheters with microbore extension tubing, and even radiopaque markers, have been developed to reduce the risk of complications associated with intraforaminal injections; these include TRUCATH™. The blunt flexible catheter is better designed to deflect and reduce penetration of vascular and neural elements. Side injection orifices for injection of contrast and a radiopaque marker on the catheter tip enhance the interventionalist's ability to anatomically determine the location of the needle tip. Although studies have not proven these attributes actually reduce complications, they are welcomed tools because they possess progressive design for technical methodology that will prevent some percentage of devastating vascular and neural complications.

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