What is the anatomy relevant to peroneal mononeuropathy?

Updated: Jun 08, 2018
  • Author: Shaheen E Lakhan, MD, PhD, MS, MEd; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, MHA, CPE  more...
  • Print
Answer

Knowledge of peroneal nerve anatomy is essential to understanding the mechanism of its injury and to localizing the site of the lesion. [3]

  • The peroneal nerve is a division of the sciatic nerve, which splits at or slightly above the popliteal fossa to form the tibial and common peroneal nerves.

  • The common peroneal nerve extends anterolaterally to wind around the neck of the fibula.

  • At this level, the nerve is superficial, covered only by skin and subcutaneous tissue. Here, it is predisposed to direct compression.

  • The nerve then dives into the peroneus longus muscle, where tethering can occur, making it susceptible to stretch injury at this level.

  • The nerve then divides into the superficial and deep peroneal branches.

    • The superficial branch supplies the foot everters and sensation to the skin of the lateral calf and dorsum of the foot.

    • The deep peroneal branch supplies the foot and toe dorsiflexors and has a small sensory component, which innervates only the skin of the web space between the first and second toes.


Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!