What is the anatomy relevant to peroneal mononeuropathy?

Updated: Jun 08, 2018
  • Author: Shaheen E Lakhan, MD, PhD, MS, MEd; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, MHA, CPE  more...
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Knowledge of peroneal nerve anatomy is essential to understanding the mechanism of its injury and to localizing the site of the lesion. [3]

  • The peroneal nerve is a division of the sciatic nerve, which splits at or slightly above the popliteal fossa to form the tibial and common peroneal nerves.

  • The common peroneal nerve extends anterolaterally to wind around the neck of the fibula.

  • At this level, the nerve is superficial, covered only by skin and subcutaneous tissue. Here, it is predisposed to direct compression.

  • The nerve then dives into the peroneus longus muscle, where tethering can occur, making it susceptible to stretch injury at this level.

  • The nerve then divides into the superficial and deep peroneal branches.

    • The superficial branch supplies the foot everters and sensation to the skin of the lateral calf and dorsum of the foot.

    • The deep peroneal branch supplies the foot and toe dorsiflexors and has a small sensory component, which innervates only the skin of the web space between the first and second toes.

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